Table of Contents
In this world of today where technological innovations are taking place every day, the potential threats of cyber attacks are also increasing at an equal pace. Cyber security plays a deep role in securing the information and data of the systems and networks in today’s world of vulnerability. Cyber security is nothing but the employment of various tools and technologies for the purpose of securing the networks, programs, system data, and network from potential attacks, damages, and various forms of unauthorized access. Cyber security is also known as security of information technology.
Cyber security and its importance
Most of the organizations and institutions such as the military, government, medical along financial bodies stores up an accountable amount of data on the systems of computers along with databases which can be found online. In most cases, the information which is being stored up in the servers and databases is highly sensitive in nature, leakage of which can result in serious troubles for the concerned organization. Unauthorized access to the systems of the organizations along with the database can lead to data breaching along with the exploitation of the security infrastructure of an organization.
The organizations which are targeted might lose up all forms of sensitive data along with complete loss of access to the systems. As the volume of cyberattacks is increasing day by day, organizations especially those which are concerned with national health and security are required to take some serious steps for safeguarding all forms of sensitive data. Cyber security is the ultimate option that can help an organization in protecting all its data and servers.
Cyber Security & Encryption
Encryption is the process of encoding communication in such a way so that only the authorized parties can encode the message of communication. It is done by using SSL/TLS and PKI protocols. The very reason why is it important so many stems from the process in which the internet was built up by using the protocol of HTTP. Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTTP is of the same age as that of the internet. HTTP is the protocol of communication that allows the servers in the web and the web browsers for communicating and displaying the information in a proper intended way. When a user visits a website, it is not actually the way it looks in the browser. Websites are built up of a bunch of codes that are sent to the web browsers which are then visually arranged by the browser in the way the web designer intended to do.
The main problem of HTTP is that it is not at all secure. So, any person who knows the process can easily spy on the connections of HTTP on the internet. In simple words, a third party can easily read along with manipulating communication over HTTP between the clients and the servers. Encryption is the technique that actually comes into play in taking care of the communication by serving the websites over the protocol of HTTPS. HTTPS is the secured version of HTTP. All the connections which are built over
HTTPS is encrypted in nature. In simple terms, any form of communication over the protocol of HTTPS is highly secure. Encryption prevents spying on communication by third parties. In case you are related to online business and you need to take the financial as well as personal details of the customers, make sure that your website is encrypted so that your customers are not at risk at the time of details exchange.
How does the process of encryption work?
The process of encryption begins when the web browser reaches one website which comes with an SSL certificate. The web server and the browser proceeds with what is known as an SSL handshake. At the preliminary stages, the web browser verifies that the SSL certificate which is installed on the website is legitimate in nature and has been issued by a trustworthy authority of certification. After the web browser makes sure that the certificate is legitimate in nature, it starts to negotiate with the terms of the encrypted connection with the server.
When it comes to encryption, there are mainly two key pairs. The first is the asymmetric key pair which consists of the private and public keys. These keys have no function with the encryption bulk but they are used for authentication. When a web browser tests the authenticity of the SSL certificate of a website, it makes sure that the certificate of SSL which is being questioned is actually the owner of the public form of a key. It performs this by using up the public key for encrypting a small packet of data. If the webserver is able to decrypt the data packet by using the respective private key and then send the packet back, it is proved that the server is the owner of the public key and everything is stated as verified. In case the webserver fails to decrypt the data packet, the certificate of the server is taken as “not trusted”.
The other key pair is the session keys. This form of keys is generated after the authenticity of the SSL certificate has been verified and all the terms regarding encryption have also been negotiated. While a public key can be used only for encrypting and a private key for decrypting, the session keys can be used for both the functions of encryption and decryption. The session keys are smaller in size and also less secure in nature when compared with the asymmetric form of counterparts. However, the session keys are strong enough for performing both functions. The server and the web browser use the session keys for the rest of the communication. After leaving the site, the session keys which are being used are discarded and brand-new session keys are generated for the new visit.
Common Types of Cyber Attacks
Cyber attacks are increasing day by day with the innovations in the world of technology. There are various types of cyber attacks that can be found today where some are used most commonly such as phishing, malware, XSS, and many more. Let’s have a look at some of the most common types of cyberattacks.
Malware is a form of harmful software which is used for gaining access to the systems of the victims. The malware can also be called viruses. Once malware enters the victim system, it can lead to havoc starting from gaining overall control of the system to the monitoring of all sorts of actions, stealing sensitive data silently, and also can lead to a complete shutdown of the system. The attackers use various ways for inserting malware into the target system. But there are also various cases in which the system users are being tricked into installing malware in the system.
Receiving emails with various unwanted links and attachments is a very common thing today. Such action of sending out harmful links and attachments via email is known as phishing. In phishing attacks, the attackers send out emails to the targets which seem like a trustable emails. Most of the emails come with links and attachments which when clicked lead to the installation of malware in the system without even the user of the system knowing anything. Some of the phishing links can also lead the users to a new website that might ask for confidential data such as bank and credit card details. Such websites are actually a trap that is used by the attackers for installing the malware in the target systems.
Cross-site scripting or XSS attack is used for targeting the users of a website directly. It is somewhat similar to the SQL injection attack and also involves injecting harmful codes into a website. But, in the case of XSS attacks, the websites are not attacked. In an XSS attack, the malicious code which has been injected into the website runs only in the browser of the user and can be used for stealing sensitive data such as username, password, bank details, and many more. Malware and Its TypesMalware is a form of malicious software which is being used for gaining access to the system of the victim. Cybercriminals design malware in a way that can be used for stealing data, compromising the functions of the computer, bypassing the access controls, and many more.
Types of malware
There are various types of malware that can be found today. Let’s have a look at them.
Adware is those programs that are used for displaying advertisements on the websites which when clicked redirect to the website which is being advertised and also collects all forms of market data about the user. There are also various forms of pop-up adware that generally contain malicious links which can lead to harm to the system.
It is software that is used for spying on the target users. It has been designed for capturing and monitoring the activities of the users on the websites. Adware is also a form of spyware that sends out the activities of browsing of the users to
A worm is a form of virus which is being used by cybercriminals for the purpose of replicating themselves. Worms use computer networks for spreading and can lead to stealing or deletion of data. Many of the worms are also being designed for spreading only through the systems and do not lead to any form of harm to the systems.