Layer 1 Physical:–
This layer is used to establish or terminate a connection to a communication medium.
The characteristics of Layer 1 are:
- It defines the electrical and mechanical specifications like cables, connectors, and signaling options of the medium.
Converters from one media to another operate at this level.
- The primary differentiators would be, the cost-effectiveness of installation, performance, convenience, and maintenance. It defines the cable or physical medium such as thinnet, thicknet, unshielded twisted pairs (UTP).
A Hub is a physical layer device that has a very limited number of ports. When a frame reaches from a source to the hub port it will broadcast to all ports including the source port which leads to a single broadcast.
Hub function as a half-duplex when a simultaneous data transfer (send and receive)occurs on the same port. There is a greater possibility of a collision occurring in the hub environment.
- Half-duplex: This means that data transmission is in a single direction at any given time, as a single wire pair enables only a one -way communication.
This would lead to a collision.
Full-duplex: This means that data transmission happens in two directions simultaneously as two-wire pairs support two-way communication.
TIP: All media provide similar functions.