Cryptography1 is a method of protecting information and communications.Through the use of codes, so that only those for whom the.Information is intended can read and process it.The prefix “crypt-” means “hidden” or “Vault” — and the suffix “-graphy” stands for “writing.”
Ex:- Plaintext: This is a secret message
Ciphertext: Gsrh rh z hvxivg nvhhztv
In computer science, cryptography1 refers to secure information and communication techniques derived from mathematical concepts and a set of rule-based calculations called algorithms, to transform messages in ways that are hard to decipher. These deterministic algorithms are used for cryptographic1 key generation, digital signing, verification to protect data privacy, web browsing on the internet, and confidential communications such as credit card transactions and email.
A message in its original form is called plaintext.
Any message in pseudo form is called ciphertext.
The algorithm for converting plaintext to ciphertext is called a cipher.
Some important information used in the cipher, only the receiver and the sender know what is called a key.
The process of converting plain text to cipher text from cipher and key is called encryption.
Using cipher, the process of converting ciphertext to plaintext and a key is called decryption.
The process of studying principals and converting ciphertext to simple text without the knowledge of a key is called cryptanalysis.
The union of cryptography1 and cryptanalysis is called cryptology.
What is Cryptanalysis
Cryptanalysis is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems. Cryptanalysis is used to breach cryptographic security systems and gain access to the contents of encrypted messages, even if the cryptographic key is unknown.
Known-Plaintext Analysis (KPA): Attacker decrypt ciphertexts with known partial plaintext.
Chosen-Plaintext Analysis (CPA): Attacker uses ciphertext that matches arbitrarily selected plaintext via the same algorithm technique.
Ciphertext-Only Analysis (COA): Attacker uses known ciphertext collections.
Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) Attack: Attack occurs when two parties use message or key sharing for communication via a channel that appears secure but is actually compromised. Attacker employs this attack for the interception of messages that pass through the communications channel. Hash functions prevent MITM attacks.
Adaptive Chosen-Plaintext Attack (ACPA): Similar to a CPA, this attack uses chosen plaintext and ciphertext based on data learned from past encryptions.
Types of cryptography1 in network security
Cryptography is divided into two parts in total:
- Symmetric cryptography, and
- Asymmetric cryptography
SYMMETRIC CRYPTOGRAPHY –
Symmetric cryptography is the process of cryptography in which encryption and plain cipher text are used for decryption within the plaintext using the same key. In this type of cryptography, the sender and receiver have the same type of ie. That is why it has also been named private key cryptography1.
In this type of cryptography, that is, asymmetric cryptography, two different keys are used for encryption and decryption of data. These key names are – public key and secret key. The public key is the one whose information is known to all, while only the receiver knows about the private key.
That is why it is also known as public key cryptography.
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